# Action (physics)

It has been suggested that this article be merged with Hamilton's principle. (Discuss) Proposed since November 2011. |

In physics, **action** is an attribute of the dynamics of a physical system. It is a mathematical functional which takes the trajectory, also called *path* or *history*, of the system as its argument and has a real number as its result. Generally, the action takes different values for different paths.^{[1]}

## Contents

## Introduction

Physical laws are frequently expressed as differential equations, which describe how physical quantities such as position and momentum change continuously with time. Given the initial and boundary conditions for the situation, the solution to the equation is a function describing the behavior of the system (positions and momenta of the particles) at all times and all positions within the set boundaries.

There is an alternative approach to finding equations of motion. Classical mechanics postulates that the path actually followed by a physical system is that for which the action is minimized, or, more strictly, is stationary. That is to say, the action satisfies a variational principle: the principle of stationary action (see also below). The action is defined by an integral, and the classical equations of motion of a system can be derived from minimizing the value of the action integral, rather than solving differential equations.

This simple principle provides deep insights into physics, and is an important concept in modern theoretical physics.

The equivalence of these two approaches is contained in Hamilton's principle, which states that the differential equations of motion for *any* physical system can be re-formulated as an equivalent integral equation. It applies not only to the classical mechanics of a single particle, but also to classical fields such as the electromagnetic and gravitational fields. Hamilton's principle has also been extended to quantum mechanics and quantum field theory, in particular path integral formulation makes use of the concept; where a physical system follows simultaneously all possible paths with probability amplitudes for each path being determined by the action for the path.^{[2]}

## History

*Action* was defined in several, now obsolete, ways during the development of the concept.^{[3]}

- Gottfried Leibniz, Johann Bernoulli and Pierre Louis Maupertuis defined the action for light as the integral of its speed or inverse speed along its path length.
- Leonhard Euler (and, possibly, Leibniz) defined action for a material particle as the integral of the particle's speed along its path through space.
- Pierre Louis Maupertuis introduced several
*ad hoc*and contradictory definitions of action within a single article, defining action as potential energy, as virtual kinetic energy, and as a hybrid that ensured conservation of momentum in collisions.^{[4]}

## Mathematical definition

Expressed in mathematical language, using the calculus of variations, the evolution of a physical system (i.e., how the system actually progresses from one state to another) corresponds to a stationary point (usually, a minimum) of the action.

Several different definitions of 'the action' are in common use in physics:^{[5]}^{[6]}

- The action is usually an integral over time. But for action pertaining to fields, it may be integrated over spatial variables as well. In some cases, the action is integrated along the path followed by the physical system.

- The evolution of a physical system between two states is determined by requiring the action be minimized or, more generally, be stationary for small perturbations about the true evolution. This requirement leads to differential equations that describe the true evolution.

- Conversely, an action principle is a method for reformulating differential equations of motion for a physical system as an equivalent integral equation. Although several variants have been defined (see below), the most commonly used action principle is Hamilton's principle.
^{[7]}

- An earlier, less informative action principle is Maupertuis' principle, which is sometimes called by its (less correct) historical name, the principle of least action.

If the action is represented as an integral over time, taken along the path of the system between the initial time and the final time of the development of the system,^{[8]}

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle \mathcal{S} = \int_{t_1}^{t_2} L \, dt\,,}**

where the integrand *L* is called the Lagrangian. For the action integral to be well defined the trajectory has to be bounded in time and space.

Action has the dimensions of [energy]•[time], and its SI unit is joule•second.

## Action in classical physics (disambiguation)

In classical physics, the term "action" has a number of meanings.

### Action (functional)

Most commonly, the term is used for a functional **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle \mathcal{S}}**
which takes a function of time and (for fields) space as input and returns a scalar^{[9]}^{[10]}. In classical mechanics, the input function is the evolution **q**(*t*) of the system between two times *t*_{1} and *t*_{2}, where **q** represent the generalized coordinates. The action **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle \mathcal{S}[\mathbf{q}(t)]}**
is defined as the integral of the Lagrangian *L* for an input evolution between the two times

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle \mathcal{S}[\mathbf{q}(t)] = \int_{t_1}^{t_2} L[\mathbf{q}(t),\dot{\mathbf{q}}(t),t]\, dt }**

where the endpoints of the evolution are fixed and defined as **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle \mathbf{q}_{1} = \mathbf{q}(t_{1})}**
and **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle \mathbf{q}_{2} = \mathbf{q}(t_{2})}**
. According to Hamilton's principle, the true evolution **q**_{true}(*t*) is an evolution for which the action **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle \mathcal{S}[\mathbf{q}(t)]}**
is stationary (a minimum, maximum, or a saddle point). This principle results in the equations of motion in Lagrangian mechanics.

### Abbreviated action (functional)

Usually denoted as **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle \mathcal{S}_{0}}**
, this is also a functional. Here the input function is the *path* followed by the physical system without regard to its parameterization by time. For example, the path of a planetary orbit is an ellipse, and the path of a particle in a uniform gravitational field is a parabola; in both cases, the path does not depend on how fast the particle traverses the path. The abbreviated action **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle \mathcal{S}_{0}}**
is defined as the integral of the generalized momenta along a path in the generalized coordinates

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle \mathcal{S}_{0} = \int \mathbf{p} \cdot d\mathbf{q} = \int p_i \,dq_i }**

According to Maupertuis' principle, the true path is a path for which the abbreviated action **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle \mathcal{S}_{0}}**
is stationary.

### Hamilton's principal function

Hamilton's principal function is defined by the Hamilton–Jacobi equations (HJE), another alternative formulation of classical mechanics. This function *S* is related to the functional **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle \mathcal{S}}**
by fixing the initial time *t*_{1} and endpoint **q**_{1} and allowing the upper limits *t*_{2} and the second endpoint **q**_{2} to vary; these variables are the arguments of the function *S*. In other words, the action function **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle S}**
is the indefinite integral of the Lagrangian with respect to time.

### Hamilton's characteristic function

When the total energy *E* is conserved, the HJE can be solved with the additive separation of variables

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle S(q_{1},\dots,q_{N},t)= W(q_{1},\dots,q_{N}) - E\cdot t}**,

where the time independent function *W*(*q*_{1}, *q*_{2} ... *q _{N}*) is called

*Hamilton's characteristic function*. The physical significance of this function is understood by taking its total time derivative

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle \frac{d W}{d t}= \frac{\partial W}{\partial q_i}\dot q_i=p_i\dot q_i}**.

This can be integrated to give

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle W(q_{1},\dots,q_{N}) = \int p_i\dot q_i \,dt = \int p_i\,dq_i}**,

which is just the abbreviated action.

### Other solutions of Hamilton–Jacobi equations

The Hamilton–Jacobi equations are often solved by additive separability; in some cases, the individual terms of the solution, e.g., *S _{k}*(

*q*), are also called an "action".

_{k}^{[11]}

### Action of a generalized coordinate

This is a single variable *J _{k}* in the action-angle coordinates, defined by integrating a single generalized momentum around a closed path in phase space, corresponding to rotating or oscillating motion

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle J_{k} = \oint p_{k} dq_{k} }**

The variable *J _{k}* is called the "action" of the generalized coordinate

*q*; the corresponding canonical variable conjugate to

_{k}*J*is its "angle"

_{k}*w*, for reasons described more fully under action-angle coordinates. The integration is only over a single variable

_{k}*q*and, therefore, unlike the integrated dot product in the abbreviated action integral above. The

_{k}*J*variable equals the change in

_{k}*S*(

_{k}*q*) as

_{k}*q*is varied around the closed path. For several physical systems of interest, J

_{k}_{k}is either a constant or varies very slowly; hence, the variable

*J*is often used in perturbation calculations and in determining adiabatic invariants.

_{k}### Action for a Hamiltonian flow

## Euler–Lagrange equations for the action integral

As noted above, the requirement that the action integral be stationary under small perturbations of the evolution is equivalent to a set of differential equations (called the Euler–Lagrange equations) that may be determined using the calculus of variations. We illustrate this derivation here using only one coordinate, *x*; the extension to multiple coordinates is straightforward.^{[12]}^{[13]}

Adopting Hamilton's principle, we assume that the Lagrangian *L* (the integrand of the action integral) depends only on the coordinate *x*(*t*) and its time derivative *dx*(*t*)/*dt*, and may also depend explicitly on time. In that case, the action integral can be written

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle \mathcal{S} = \int_{t_1}^{t_2}\; L(x,\dot{x},t)\,dt }**

where the initial and final times (t_{1} and t_{2}) and the final and initial positions are specified in advance as **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle x_{1} = x(t_{1})}**
and **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle x_{2} = x(t_{2})}**
. Let *x*_{true}(*t*) represent the true evolution that we seek, and let **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle x_{\mathrm{per}}(t)}**
be a slightly perturbed version of it, albeit with the same endpoints, **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle x_{\mathrm{per}}(t_{1})=x_{1}}**
and **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle x_{\mathrm{per}}(t_{2})=x_{2}}**
. The difference between these two evolutions, which we will call **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle \varepsilon(t)}**
, is infinitesimally small at all times

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle \varepsilon(t) = x_{\mathrm{per}}(t) - x_{\mathrm{true}}(t) }**

At the endpoints, the difference vanishes, i.e., **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle \varepsilon(t_{1}) = \varepsilon(t_{2}) = 0}**
.

Expanded to first order, the difference between the actions integrals for the two evolutions is

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle \begin{align} \delta \mathcal{S} &= \int_{t_1}^{t_2}\; \left[ L(x_{\mathrm{true}}+\varepsilon,\dot x_{\mathrm{true}} +\dot\varepsilon,t)- L(x_{\mathrm{true}},\dot x_{\mathrm{true}},t) \right]dt \\ &= \int_{t_1}^{t_2}\; \left(\varepsilon{\partial L\over\partial x} + \dot\varepsilon{\partial L\over\partial \dot x} \right)\,dt \end{align}}**

Integration by parts of the last term, together with the boundary conditions **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle \varepsilon(t_{1}) = \varepsilon(t_{2}) = 0}**
, yields the equation

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle \delta \mathcal{S} = \int_{t_1}^{t_2}\; \left( \varepsilon{\partial L\over \partial x} - \varepsilon{d\over dt }{\partial L\over\partial \dot x} \right)\,dt. }**

The requirement that **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle \mathcal{S}}**
be stationary implies that the first-order change must be zero for *any* possible perturbation ε(*t*) about the true evolution,

**Principle of stationary action****Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle \delta\mathcal{S}=0}**

This can be true only if

**Euler–Lagrange equation****Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle {\partial L\over\partial x} - {d\over dt }{\partial L\over\partial \dot{x}} = 0 }**

The Euler–Lagrange equation is obeyed provided the functional derivative of the action integral is identically zero:

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle \frac{\delta \mathcal{S}}{\delta x(t)}=0}**.

The quantity **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle \frac{\partial L}{\partial\dot x}}**
is called the
*conjugate momentum* for the coordinate *x*. An important consequence of the Euler–Lagrange equations is that if *L* does not explicitly contain coordinate *x*, i.e.

- if
**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle \frac{\partial L}{\partial x}=0}**, then**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle \frac{\partial L}{\partial\dot x}}**is constant in time.

In such cases, the coordinate *x* is called a *cyclic* coordinate,
and its conjugate momentum is conserved.

### Example: free particle in polar coordinates

Simple examples help to appreciate the use of the action principle via the Euler–Lagrangian equations. A free particle (mass *m* and velocity *v*) in Euclidean space moves in a straight line. Using the Euler–Lagrange equations, this can be shown in polar coordinates as follows. In the absence of a potential, the Lagrangian is simply equal to the kinetic energy

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle \frac{1}{2} mv^2= \frac{1}{2}m \left( \dot{x}^2 + \dot{y}^2 \right)}**

in orthonormal (*x*,*y*) coordinates, where the dot represents differentiation with respect to the curve parameter (usually the time, *t*).
In polar coordinates (*r*, φ) the kinetic energy and hence the Lagrangian becomes

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle L = \frac{1}{2}m \left( \dot{r}^2 + r^2\dot\varphi^2 \right). }**

The radial *r* and φ components of the Euler–Lagrangian equations become, respectively

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle \begin{align} \frac{d}{dt} \left( \frac{\partial L}{\partial \dot{r}} \right) - \frac{\partial L}{\partial r} &= 0 \qquad \Rightarrow \qquad \ddot{r} - r\dot{\varphi}^2 &= 0 \\ \frac{d}{dt} \left( \frac{\partial L}{\partial \dot{\varphi}} \right) - \frac{\partial L}{\partial \varphi} &= 0 \qquad \Rightarrow \qquad \ddot{\varphi} + \frac{2}{r}\dot{r}\dot{\varphi} &= 0 \end{align}}**

The solution of these two equations is given by

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle \begin{align} r\cos\varphi &= a t + b \\ r\sin\varphi &= c t + d \end{align}}**

for a set of constants *a, b, c, d* determined by initial conditions.
Thus, indeed, *the solution is a straight line* given in polar coordinates.

## The action principle

### Classical fields

The **action principle** can be extended to obtain the equations of motion for fields, such as the electromagnetic field or gravitational field.

The Einstein equation utilizes the *Einstein-Hilbert action* as constrained by a variational principle.

The path of a body in a gravitational field (i.e. free fall in space time, a so called geodesic) can be found using the action principle.

### Conservation laws

Symmetries in a physical situation can better be treated with the action principle, together with the Euler–Lagrange equations, which are derived from the action principle. An example is Noether's theorem, which states that to every continuous symmetry in a physical situation there corresponds a conservation law (and conversely). This deep connection requires that the action principle be assumed. ^{[14]}

### Quantum mechanics and quantum field theory

In quantum mechanics, the system does not follow a single path whose action is stationary, but the behavior of the system depends on all permitted paths and the value of their action. The action corresponding to the various paths is used to calculate the path integral, that gives the probability amplitudes of the various outcomes.

Although equivalent in classical mechanics with Newton's laws, the **action principle** is better suited for generalizations and plays an important role in modern physics. Indeed, this principle is one of the great generalizations in physical science. In particular, it is fully appreciated and best understood within quantum mechanics. Richard Feynman's path integral formulation of quantum mechanics is based on a stationary-action principle, using path integrals. Maxwell's equations can be derived as conditions of stationary action.

### Single relativistic particle

When relativistic effects are significant, the action of a point particle of mass *m* travelling a world line *C* parametrized by the proper time **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle \tau}**
is

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle S = - m c^2 \int_{C} \, d \tau }**.

If instead, the particle is parametrized by the coordinate time *t* of the particle and the coordinate time ranges from *t*_{1} to *t*_{2}, then the action becomes

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle \int_{t1}^{t2} L \, dt}**

where the Lagrangian is

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle L = - m c^2 \sqrt {1 - \frac{v^2}{c^2}}}**.^{[15]}

### Modern extensions

The action principle can be generalized still further. For example, the action need not be an integral because nonlocal actions are possible. The configuration space need not even be a functional space given certain features such as noncommutative geometry. However, a physical basis for these mathematical extensions remains to be established experimentally. ^{[16]}

## See also

- Calculus of variations
- Functional derivative
- Functional integral
- Hamiltonian mechanics
- Lagrangian
- Lagrangian mechanics
- Measure (physics)
- Noether's theorem
- Path integral formulation
- Planck's constant
- Principle of least action
- Quantum physics
- Entropy (the least Action Principle and the Principle of Maximum Probability or Entropy could be seen as analogous)

## References

- ↑ McGraw Hill Encyclopaedia of Physics (2nd Edition), C.B. Parker, 1994, ISBN 0-07-051400-3
- ↑ Quantum Mechanics, E. Abers, Pearson Ed., Addison Wesley, Prentice Hall Inc, 2004, ISBN 9780131461000
- ↑ Analytical Mechanics, L.N. Hand, J.D. Finch, Cambridge University Press, 2008, ISBN 978 0 521 57572 0
- ↑
*Œuvres de Mr de Maupertuis*(pre-1801 Imprint Collection at the Library of Congress). - ↑ Encyclopaedia of Physics (2nd Edition), R.G. Lerner, G.L. Trigg, VHC publishers, 1991, ISBN (Verlagsgesellschaft) 3-527-26954-1, ISBN (VHC Inc.) 0-89573-752-3
- ↑ Analytical Mechanics, L.N. Hand, J.D. Finch, Cambridge University Press, 2008, ISBN 978 0 521 57572 0
- ↑ The Road to Reality, Roger Penrose, Vintage books, 2007, ISBN 0-679-77631-1
- ↑ Analytical Mechanics, L.N. Hand, J.D. Finch, Cambridge University Press, 2008, ISBN 978 0 521 57572 0
- ↑ The Road to Reality, Roger Penrose, Vintage books, 2007, ISBN 0-679-77631-1
- ↑ Classical Mechanics, T.W.B. Kibble, European Physics Series, McGraw-Hill (UK), 1973, ISBN 07-084018-0
- ↑ McGraw Hill Encyclopaedia of Physics (2nd Edition), C.B. Parker, 1994, ISBN 0-07-051400-3
- ↑ Classical Mechanics, T.W.B. Kibble, European Physics Series, McGraw-Hill (UK), 1973, ISBN 07-084018-0
- ↑ Quantum Mechanics, E. Abers, Pearson Ed., Addison Wesley, Prentice Hall Inc, 2004, ISBN 9780131461000
- ↑ L.D. Landau and E.M. Lifshitz
*The Classical Theory of Fields*Addison-Wesley 1971 sec 8.p.24-25 - ↑ The Road to Reality, Roger Penrose, Vintage books, 2007, ISBN 0-679-77631-1

## Sources and further reading

For an annotated bibliography, see Edwin F. Taylor [1] who lists, among other things, the following books

*The Cambridge Handbook of Physics Formulas*, G. Woan, Cambridge University Press, 2010, ISBN 978-0-521-57507-2.- Cornelius Lanczos, The Variational Principles of Mechanics (Dover Publications, New York, 1986). ISBN 0-486-65067-7.
*The*reference most quoted by all those who explore this field. - L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Mechanics, Course of Theoretical Physics (Butterworth-Heinenann, 1976), 3rd ed., Vol. 1. ISBN 0-7506-2896-0. Begins with the principle of least action.
- Thomas A. Moore "Least-Action Principle" in Macmillan Encyclopedia of Physics (Simon & Schuster Macmillan, 1996), Volume 2, ISBN 0-02-897359-3, OCLC 35269891, pages 840 – 842.
- Gerald Jay Sussman and Jack Wisdom, Structure and Interpretation of Classical Mechanics (MIT Press, 2001). Begins with the principle of least action, uses modern mathematical notation, and checks the clarity and consistency of procedures by programming them in computer language.
- Dare A. Wells, Lagrangian Dynamics, Schaum's Outline Series (McGraw-Hill, 1967) ISBN 0-07-069258-0, A 350 page comprehensive "outline" of the subject.
- Robert Weinstock, Calculus of Variations, with Applications to Physics and Engineering (Dover Publications, 1974). ISBN 0-486-63069-2. An oldie but goodie, with the formalism carefully defined before use in physics and engineering.
- Wolfgang Yourgrau and Stanley Mandelstam, Variational Principles in Dynamics and Quantum Theory (Dover Publications, 1979). A nice treatment that does not avoid the philosophical implications of the theory and lauds the Feynman treatment of quantum mechanics that reduces to the principle of least action in the limit of large mass.
- Edwin F. Taylor's page [2]
- Principle of least action interactive Excellent interactive explanation/webpage