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|Homer (Ὅμηρος Homēros)</span>|
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[T]he translator of Homer should above all be penetrated by a sense of four qualities of his author:—that he is eminently rapid; that he is eminently plain and direct, both in the evolution of his thought and in the expression of it, that is, both in his syntax and in his words; that he is eminently plain and direct in the substance of his thought, that is, in his matter and ideas; and finally, that he is eminently noble.
The peculiar rapidity of Homer is due in great measure to his use of hexameter verse. It is characteristic of early literature that the evolution of the thought, or the grammatical form of the sentence, is guided by the structure of the verse; and the correspondence which consequently obtains between the rhythm and the syntax—the thought being given out in lengths, as it were, and these again divided by tolerably uniform pauses—produces a swift flowing movement such as is rarely found when periods are constructed without direct reference to the metre. That Homer possesses this rapidity without falling into the corresponding faults, that is, without becoming either fluctuant or monotonous, is perhaps the best proof of his unequalled poetic skill. The plainness and directness of both thought and expression which characterise him were doubtless qualities of his age, but the author of the Iliad (similar to Voltaire, to whom Arnold happily compares him) must have possessed this gift in a surpassing degree. The Odyssey is in this respect perceptibly below the level of the Iliad.
Rapidity or ease of movement, plainness of expression, and plainness of thought are not distinguishing qualities of the great epic poets Virgil, Dante, and Milton. On the contrary, they belong rather to the humbler epico-lyrical school for which Homer has been so often claimed. The proof that Homer does not belong to that school—and that his poetry is not in any true sense ballad poetry—is furnished by the higher artistic structure of his poems and, as regards style, by the fourth of the qualities distinguished by Arnold: the quality of nobleness. It is his noble and powerful style, sustained through every change of idea and subject, that finally separates Homer from all forms of ballad poetry and popular epic.
Like the French epics, such as the Chanson de Roland, Homeric poetry is indigenous and, by the ease of movement and its resultant simplicity, distinguishable from the works of Dante, Milton and Virgil. It is also distinguished from the works of these artists by the comparative absence of underlying motives or sentiment. In Virgil's poetry, a sense of the greatness of Rome and Italy is the leading motive of a passionate rhetoric, partly veiled by the considered delicacy of his language. Dante and Milton are still more faithful exponents of the religion and politics of their time. Even the French epics display sentiments of fear and hatred of the Saracens; but, in Homer's works, the interest is purely dramatic. There is no strong antipathy of race or religion; the war turns on no political events; the capture of Troy lies outside the range of the Iliad; and even the protagonists are not comparable to the chief national heroes of Greece. So far as can be seen, the chief interest in Homer's works is that of human feeling and emotion, and of drama; indeed, his works are often referred to as "dramas".
History and the Iliad
The excavations of Heinrich Schliemann at Hisarlik in the late 19th century provided initial evidence to scholars that there was an historical basis for the Trojan War. Research into oral epics in Serbo-Croatian and Turkic languages, pioneered by the aforementioned Parry and Lord, began convincing scholars that long poems could be preserved with consistency by oral cultures until they are written down. The decipherment of Linear B in the 1950s by Michael Ventris (and others) convinced many of a linguistic continuity between 13th century BC Mycenaean writings and the poems attributed to Homer.
It is probable, therefore, that the story of the Trojan War as reflected in the Homeric poems derives from a tradition of epic poetry founded on a war which actually took place. It is crucial, however, not to underestimate the creative and transforming power of subsequent tradition: for instance, Achilles, the most important character of the Iliad, is strongly associated with southern Thessaly, but his legendary figure is interwoven into a tale of war whose kings were from the Peloponnese. Tribal wanderings were frequent, and far-flung, ranging over much of Greece and the Eastern Mediterranean. The epic weaves brilliantly the disiecta membra (scattered remains) of these distinct tribal narratives, exchanged among clan bards, into a monumental tale in which Greeks join collectively to do battle on the distant plains of Troy.
In the Hellenistic period, Homer was the subject of a hero cult in several cities. A shrine, the Homereion, was devoted to him in Alexandria by Ptolemy IV Philopator in the late 3rd century BC. This shrine is described in Aelian's 3rd century AD work Varia Historia. He tells how Ptolemy "placed in a circle around the statue [of Homer] all the cities who laid claim to Homer" and mentions a painting of the poet by the artist Galaton, which apparently depicted Homer in the aspect of Oceanus as the source of all poetry.
A marble relief, found in Italy but thought to have been sculpted in Egypt, depicts the apotheosis of Homer. It shows Ptolemy and his wife or sister Arsinoe III standing beside a seated poet, flanked by figures from the Odyssey and Iliad, with the nine Muses standing above them and a procession of worshippers approaching an altar, believed to represent the Alexandrine Homereion. Apollo, the god of music and poetry, also appears, along with a female figure tentatively identified as Mnemosyne, the mother of the Muses. Zeus, the king of the gods, presides over the proceedings. The relief demonstrates vividly that the Greeks considered Homer not merely a great poet but the divinely inspired reservoir of all literature.
Homereia also stood at Chios, Ephesus, and Smyrna, which were among the city-states that claimed to be his birthplace. Strabo (14.1.37) records an Homeric temple in Smyrna with an ancient xoanon or cult statue of the poet. He also mentions sacrifices carried out to Homer by the inhabitants of Argos, presumably at another Homereion.
Transmission and publication
Though evincing many features characteristic of oral poetry, the Iliad and Odyssey were at some point committed to writing. The Greek script, adapted from a Phoenician syllabary around 800 BC, made possible the notation of the complex rhythms and vowel clusters that make up hexameter verse. Homer's poems appear to have been recorded shortly after the alphabet's invention: an inscription from Ischia in the Bay of Naples, ca. 740 BC, appears to refer to a text of the Iliad; likewise, illustrations seemingly inspired by the Polyphemus episode in the Odyssey are found on Samos, Mykonos and in Italy, dating from the first quarter of the seventh century BC. We have little information about the early condition of the Homeric poems, but in the second century BC, Alexandrian editors stabilized this text from which all modern texts descend.
In late antiquity, knowledge of Greek declined in Latin-speaking western Europe and, along with it, knowledge of Homer's poems. It was not until the fifteenth century AD that Homer's work began to be read once more in Italy. By contrast it was continually read and taught in the Greek-speaking Eastern Roman Empire where the majority of the classics also survived. The first printed edition appeared in 1488 (edited by Demetrios Chalkokondyles and published by Bernardus Nerlius, Nerius Nerlius, and Demetrius Damilas in Florence, Italy).
One often finds books of the Iliad and Odyssey cited by the corresponding letter of the Greek alphabet, with upper-case letters referring to a book number of the Iliad and lower-case letters referring to the Odyssey. Thus Ξ 200 would be shorthand for Iliad book 14, line 200, while ξ 200 would be Odyssey 14.200. The following table presents this system of numeration:
- Herodotus 2.53.
- Graziosi, Barbara (2002). "Inventing Homer". Cambridge: 98–101.
- Heubeck, Alfred (1988). A Commentary on Homer's Odyssey. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 3. ISBN 0-19-814047-9. Unknown parameter
- Finley, Moses (2002). The World of Odysseus. New York: New York Review of Books. pp. 11–2. ISBN 978-1-59017-017-5.; Finley's figures are based upon the corpus of literary papyri published before 1963.
- Vidal-Naquet, Pierre (2000). Le monde d'Homère. Perrin. p. 19.
- M. L. West (1966). Hesiod's Theogony. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 40, 46. ISBN 0-585-34339-X.
- Oliver Taplin's chapter on Homer, The Oxford History of the Classical World, Oxford University Press, 1993, p 50
- Nagy, Gregory (2001). "Homeric Poetry and Problems of Multiformity: The "Panathenaic Bottleneck". Classical Philology. 96: 109–119.
- G. S. Kirk's comment that "Antiquity knew nothing definite about the life and personality of Homer" represents the consensus (Kirk, The Iliad: a Commentary (Cambridge 1985), v. 1).
- West, Martin (1999). "The Invention of Homer". Classical Quarterly. 49 (364).
- Silk, Michael (1987). Homer: The Iliad. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 5. ISBN 0-521-83233-0.
- Lucian, Verae Historiae 2.20, cited and tr. Barbara Graziosi‚Inventing Homer: The Early Reception of Epic, Cambridge University Press, 2002 p. 127
- Parke, Herbert W. (1967). Greek Oracles. pp. 136–137 citing the Certamen, 12. ISBN 0-09-084111-5.
- There were seven in addition to an account of a bardic competition between Homer and Hesiod. F. Stoessl,'Homeros' in Der Kleine Pauly: Lexikon der Antike in fünf Bänden, Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, München 1979, Bd. 2, p. 1202
- Kirk, G.S. (1965). Homer and the Epic: A Shortened Version of the Songs of Homer. London: Cambridge University Press. p. 190. ISBN 0-521-09356-2.
- Homêreôn was one of the names for a month in the calendar of Ios. H.G. Liddell, R. Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, rev. ed. Sir Henry Stuart-Jones, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1968 ad loc
- Iliad 2.459–63
- Iliad 2.144–6
- Iliad 4.142
- Barry B. Powell, ‘Did Homer sing at Lefkandi?’, Electronic Antiquity, July 1993, Vol. 1, No. 2.
- Semonides fr. 19 in the 2nd edition of West's Iambi et Elegi Graeci ante Alexandrum cantati (Oxford, 1989).
- Gilbert Murray, The Rise of the Greek Epic, p. 307
- "The probability is that 'Homer' was not the name of a historical Greek poet but is the imaginary ancestor of the Homeridai; such guild-names in -idai and -adai are not normally based on the name of an historical person". M. L. West, The East Face of Helicon: West Asiatic Elements in Greek Poetry and Myth, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1997 p. 622. West conjectures a Phoenician prototype for Homer's name, "*benê ômerîm" ("sons of speakers"), id est professional tale-tellers.
- "Troja und Ilion" and "Alt-Ithaka: Ein Beitrag zur Homer-Frage, Studien und Ausgrabungen aus der insel Leukas-Ithaka"
- The Historical Library of Diodorus Siculus, Book I, ch. VI.
- P. Chantraine, Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue grecque, Klincksieck, Paris, 1968, vol. 2 (3–4) p. 797 ad loc.
- H.G. Liddell, R. Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, rev. ed. Sir Henry Stuart-Jones, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1968 ad loc.
- Pseudo-Herodotus, Vita Homeri1.3 in Thomas W. Allen, Homeri Opera, Tomus V,(1912) 1946 p. 194. Cf. Lycophron, Alexandra, l.422
- Homeric Hymns 3:172–3
- Thucidides, The Peloponnesian War 3:104
- Barbara Graziosi,Inventing Homer: The Early Reception of Epic, Cambridge University Press, 2002 p. 133
- Odyssey, 8:64ff.
- Gregory Nagy, The Best of the Achaeans: Concepts of the Hero in Archaic Greek Poetry, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore and London, 1979 p. 296–300
- M. L. West (ed.), Hesiod Theogony, Clarendon Press, Oxford 1966 on line 39, p. 170
- Gilbert Murray, The Rise of the Greek Epic, ibid., p.
- Filippo Càssola (ed.) Inni Omerici, Mondadori, Milan, 1975 p. xxxiii
- Marcello Durante, 'II nome di Omero', in Rendiconti Accademia Lincei, XII, 1957 p. 94–111
- Marcello Durante, Sulla preistoria della tradizione poetica greca,Edizioni dell'Ateneo, Rome 1971 2 vols. vol. 2 p. 185–204, esp. pp. 194ff.
- Iliad, 2.595
- Hesiod, Works and Days, 654–5; Martin P. Nilsson, Homer & Mycenae(12933) University of Pennsylvania Press, 1972 pp. 207ff.
- Joachim Latacz, Homer: His Art and His World, tr. James P. Holoka, University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor 1996, p. 29
- Barbara Graziosi, ibid. esp. p. 134
- Gilbert Murray, The Rise of the Greek Epic', 4th ed. ibid. p. 93
- William G. Thalman, Conventions of Form and Thought in Early Greek Epic Poetry, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore and London, 1984 p. 119
- Gilbert Murray: The Rise of the Greek Epic, 4th ed. 1934, Oxford University Press reprint 1967 p. 299
- Butler, Samuel (1897) The authoress of the Odyssey : where and when she wrote, who she was, the use she made of the Iliad, and how the poem grew under her hands London: Longmans, Green
- Mary Ebbott "Butler's Authoress of the Odyssey: gendered readings of Homer, then and now," (Classics@: Issue 3).
- Adam Parry (ed.) The Making of Homeric Verse: The Collected Papers of Milman Parry, Clarendon Press, Oxford 1987.
- "Signs of Meaning" Science 324 p. 38 3 April 2009, reviewing Powell's Writing and citing Powell's Homer and the Origin of the Greek Alphabet CUP 1991
- Najock Dietmar, 1995, "Letter Distribution and Authorship in Early Greek Epics", Revue informatique et Statistique dans les Sciences Humaines, XXXI, 1 à 4, p. 129-154 
- Vonfelt Stephan, 2010, "Archéologie numérique de la poésie grecque", Université de Toulouse 
- Aristotle, Poetics, 1451a 16–29. Cf. Aristotle, "On the Art of Poetry" in T.S. Dorsch (tr.), Aristotle, Horace, Longinus: Classical Literary Criticism, Penguin, Harmondsworth, 1965 ch. 8 pp. 42–43
- Matthew Arnold, 'On Translating Homer' (Oxford Lecture, 1861) in Lionel Trilling (ed.) The Portable Matthew Arnold,(1949) Viking Press, New York 1956 pp. 204–228, p. 211
- Dante has Virgil introduce Homer, with a sword in hand, as poeta sovrano (sovereign poet), walking ahead of Horace, Ovid and Lucan. Cf. Inferno IV, 88
- Gilbert Murray, The Rise of the Greek Epic, Clarendon Press, Oxford 1907, pp. 182f., slightly expanded in the 4th. ed. (1934) 1960 pp. 206ff.
- Morgan, Llewelyn, 1999. Patterns of Redemption in Virgil's Georgics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), p. 30.
- Zanker, Paul, 1996. The Mask of Socrates: The Image of the Intellectual in Antiquity, Alan Shapiro, trans. (Berkeley: University of California Press).
(texts in Homeric Greek)
- Demetrius Chalcondyles editio princeps, Florence, 1488
- the Aldine editions (1504 and 1517)
- Th. Ridel, Strasbourg, ca. 1572, 1588 and 1592.
- Wolf (Halle, 1794–1795; Leipzig, 1804 1807)
- Spitzner (Gotha, 1832–1836)
- Bekker (Berlin, 1843; Bonn, 1858)
- La Roche (Odyssey, 1867–1868; Iliad, 1873–1876, both at Leipzig)
- Ludwich (Odyssey, Leipzig, 1889–1891; Iliad, 2 vols., 1901 and 1907)
- W. Leaf (Iliad, London, 1886–1888; 2nd ed. 1900-1902)
- William Walter Merry and James Riddell (Odyssey i–xii., 2nd ed., Oxford, 1886)
- Monro (Odyssey xiii.–xxiv. with appendices, Oxford, 1901)
- Monro and Allen (Iliad), and Allen (Odyssey, 1908, Oxford).
- D.B. Monro and T.W. Allen 1917-1920, Homeri Opera (5 volumes: Iliad = 3rd edition, Odyssey = 2nd edition), Oxford. ISBN 0-19-814528-4, ISBN 0-19-814529-2, ISBN 0-19-814531-4, ISBN 0-19-814532-2, ISBN 0-19-814534-9
- H. van Thiel 1991, Homeri Odyssea, Hildesheim. ISBN 3-487-09458-4, 1996, Homeri Ilias, Hildesheim. ISBN 3-487-09459-2
- M.L. West 1998–2000, Homeri Ilias (2 volumes), Munich/Leipzig. ISBN 3-598-71431-9, ISBN 3-598-71435-1
- P. von der Mühll 1993, Homeri Odyssea, Munich/Leipzig. ISBN 3-598-71432-7
- Ilias in Wikisource
- The Iliad of Homer a Parsed Interlinear, Handheldclassics.com (2008) Text ISBN 978-1-60725-298-6
This is a partial list of translations into English of Homer's Iliad and Odyssey.
- Augustus Taber Murray (1866–1940)
- Robert Fitzgerald (1910–1985)
- The Iliad, Farrar, Straus and Giroux (2004) ISBN 0-374-52905-1
- The Odyssey, Farrar, Straus and Giroux (1998) ISBN 0-374-52574-9
- Robert Fagles (1933–2008)
- The Iliad, Penguin Classics (1998) ISBN 0-14-027536-3
- The Odyssey, Penguin Classics (1999) ISBN 0-14-026886-3
- Stanley Lombardo (b. 1943)
- Iliad, Hackett Publishing Company (1997) ISBN 0-87220-352-2
- Odyssey, Hackett Publishing Company (2000) ISBN 0-87220-484-7
- Iliad, (Audiobook) Parmenides (2006) ISBN 1-930972-08-3
- Odyssey, (Audiobook) Parmenides (2006) ISBN 1-930972-06-7
- The Essential Homer, (Audiobook) Parmenides (2006) ISBN 1-930972-12-1
- The Essential Iliad, (Audiobook) Parmenides (2006) ISBN 1-930972-10-5
- Samuel Butler (1835–1902)
- The Iliad, Red and Black Publishers (2008) ISBN 978-1-934941-04-1
- The Odyssey, Red and Black Publishers (2008) ISBN 978-1-934941-05-8
- Herbert Jordan (b. 1938)
- Iliad, University of Oklahoma Press (2008) ISBN 978-0-8061-3974-6 (soft cover); ISBN 978-0-8061-3942-5 (cloth bound)
General works on Homer
- Pierre Carlier, Homère, Fayard 1999. ISBN 2-213-60381-2
- Pierre Vidal-Naquet, Le monde d'Homère, Perrin 2000. ISBN 2-262-01181-8
- Jacqueline de Romilly, Homère, Presses Universitaire de France, 5th ed. 2005. ISBN 2-13-054830-X
- J. Latacz 2004, Troy and Homer: Towards a Solution of an Old Mystery, Oxford, ISBN 0-19-926308-6; 5th updated and expanded edition, Leipzig 2005 (in Spanish 2003 ISBN 84-233-3487-2, modern Greek 2005 ISBN 960-16-1557-1)
- Robert Fowler (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Homer, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2004. ISBN 0-521-01246-5
- I. Morris and B. B. Powell 1997, A New Companion to Homer, Leiden. ISBN 90-04-09989-1
- B. B. Powell 2007, Homer, 2nd edition. Oxford. ISBN 978-1-4051-5325-5
- Wace, A.J.B. (1962). A Companion to Homer. London: Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-07113-1. Unknown parameter
Influential readings and interpretations
- E. Auerbach 1953, Mimesis, Princeton (orig. publ. in German, 1946, Bern), chapter 1. ISBN 0-691-11336-X
- M.W. Edwards 1987, Homer, Poet of the Iliad, Baltimore. ISBN 0-8018-3329-9
- B. Fenik 1974, Studies in the Odyssey, Wiesbaden ('Hermes' Einzelschriften 30).
- M.I. Finley, The World of Odysseus 1954, rev. ed. 1978.
- I.J.F. de Jong 1987, Narrators and Focalizers, Amsterdam/Bristol. ISBN 1-85399-658-0
- G. Nagy 1980, The Best of the Achaeans, Baltimore. ISBN 978-0-8018-6015-7
- P.V. Jones (ed.) 2003, Homer's Iliad. A Commentary on Three Translations, London. ISBN 1-85399-657-2
- G. S. Kirk (gen. ed.) 1985–1993, The Iliad: A Commentary (6 volumes), Cambridge. ISBN 0-521-28171-7, ISBN 0-521-28172-5, ISBN 0-521-28173-3, ISBN 0-521-28174-1, ISBN 0-521-31208-6, ISBN 0-521-31209-4
- J. Latacz (gen. ed.) 2002–, Homers Ilias. Gesamtkommentar. Auf der Grundlage der Ausgabe von Ameis-Hentze-Cauer (1868–1913) (6 volumes published so far, of an estimated 15), Munich/Leipzig. ISBN 3-598-74307-6, ISBN 3-598-74304-1
- N. Postlethwaite (ed.) 2000, Homer's Iliad: A Commentary on the Translation of Richmond Lattimore, Exeter. ISBN 0-85989-684-6
- M.W. Willcock (ed.) 1976, A Companion to the Iliad, Chicago. ISBN 0-226-89855-5
- A. Heubeck (gen. ed.) 1990–1993, A Commentary on Homer's Odyssey (3 volumes; orig. publ. 1981–1987 in Italian), Oxford. ISBN 0-19-814747-3, ISBN 0-19-872144-7, ISBN 0-19-814953-0
- P. Jones (ed.) 1988, Homer's Odyssey: A Commentary based on the English Translation of Richmond Lattimore, Bristol. ISBN 1-85399-038-8
- I.J.F. de Jong (ed.) 2001, A Narratological Commentary on the Odyssey, Cambridge. ISBN 0-521-46844-2
Trends in Homeric scholarship
- "Classical" analysis
- A. Heubeck 1974, Die homerische Frage, Darmstadt. ISBN 3-534-03864-9
- R. Merkelbach 1969, Untersuchungen zur Odyssee (2nd edition), Munich. ISBN 3-406-03242-7
- D. Page 1955, The Homeric Odyssey, Oxford.
- U. von Wilamowitz-Möllendorff 1916, Die Ilias und Homer, Berlin.
- F.A. Wolf 1795, Prolegomena ad Homerum, Halle. Published in English translation 1988, Princeton. ISBN 0-691-10247-3
- M.E. Clark 1986, "Neoanalysis: a bibliographical review," Classical World 79.6: 379–94.
- J. Griffin 1977, "The epic cycle and the uniqueness of Homer," Journal of Hellenic Studies 97: 39–53.
- J.T. Kakridis 1949, Homeric Researches, London. ISBN 0-8240-7757-1
- W. Kullmann 1960, Die Quellen der Ilias (Troischer Sagenkreis), Wiesbaden. ISBN 3-515-00235-9
- Homer and oral tradition
- E. Bakker 1997, Poetry in Speech: Orality and Homeric Discourse, Ithaca NY. ISBN 0-8014-3295-2
- J.M. Foley 1999, Homer's Traditional Art, University Park PA. ISBN 0-271-01870-4
- G.S. Kirk 1976, Homer and the Oral Tradition, Cambridge. ISBN 0-521-21309-6
- A.B. Lord 1960, The Singer of Tales, Cambridge MA. ISBN 0-674-00283-0
- M. Parry 1971, The Making of Homeric Verse, Oxford. ISBN 0-19-520560-X
- B. B. Powell, 1991, Homer and the Origin of the Greek Alphabet, ISBN 0-521-58907-X
Dating the Homeric poems
- R. Janko 1982, Homer, Hesiod and the Hymns, Cambridge. ISBN 0-521-23869-2
- Ford, Andrew (1992). Homer : the poetry of the past. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-2700-2.
- Kirk, G.S. (1962). The Songs of Homer. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Nagy, Gregory (2010). Homer: the Preclassic. Berkeley: University of California Press.
- Schein, Seth L. (1984). The mortal hero : an introduction to Homer's Iliad. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-05128-9.
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Homer|
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|PhysicsWiki Commons has media related to Homer.|
|Wikisource has original works written by or about:|
- Iliad by Homer
- Works by Homer at Project Gutenberg.
- Works by or about Homer in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
- Iliad bilingual edition bks 1–12 at archive.org
- Greek lessons based on Homer
- Clyde Pharr, Homer and the study of Greek
- The Chicago Homer
- complete syntax diagrams at Alpheios
- SORGLL: Homer, Iliad, Bk I, 1–52; read by Stephen Daitz
- Heath, Malcolm (May 4, 2001). "Aristotle's Poetics: Notes on Homer's Iliad and Odyssey". Archived from the original on September 8, 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-01. Invalid
- Translation issues: Iliad translator Herbert Jordan (U. of Oklahoma Press 2008) describes translation issues including: how literal should it be; whether to call the besiegers Achaeans, Argives, Danaans, or Greeks; how—and whether—to translate "winged words"; what the wall by the ships looked like; whether the besiegers slept in tents, huts, camps—or nothing.
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